Power System Protective Relaying

Introduction, Overview & Discussion of Objectives

Power System Faults
Different Types of Faults
Incidence of faults on Power System Equipment
Effects of Power System Faults
Causes of Power System Faults
Magnitude of Fault Current
Detection of Faults
Clearance of Faults
Requirements of Protective Relaying Systems

Components of Protection Schemes
Fault Detecting Relays
The Transition from Electro-mechanical Relays to Electronic
and Digital Microprocessor-Based Relays
Tripping Relays & Other Auxiliary Relays
•Circuit Breakers - bulk-oil, air-blast, vacuum, SF6
•Current Transformers
•Voltage Transformers
•Modern Microprocessor-based relays - Review of types available

Current Transformers & Voltage Transformers
•Various Types of C.T.'s V.T.'s & C.V.T.'s
•Theory and Characteristics of C.T.'s
•Application Requirements of C.T.'s for Protective Relaying
•Accuracy Classifications
•Future Trends in C.T. Design using Optics.
•Testing of C.T.'s and V.T.'s

Power System Neutral Grounding
•An overview of power system neutral grounding
•System grounding as found in industrial plants and high-voltage
•Ungrounded systems
•Resistance grounded systems
•Reactor grounded systems
•Solid or effectively grounded systems
•Resistance grounded systems in industrial plants
•Calculation of ground-fault current
•Ground-fault detection on resistance grounded systems
•Ground-fault detection on ungrounded systems
•Generator neutral grounding methods, equipment selection
•Reasons for limiting generator ground-fault current to a low value
•Neutral grounding transformers and resistors
•Calculation of generator ground-fault current
•Sizing and rating of grounding equipment

Ground Potential Rise During Power System Faults
•Hazards to individuals working in electrical substations
•Substation grounding system fundamentals
•Step voltage, touch voltage, mesh voltage
•Tolerable limits of body currents during power system faults
•Calculation of allowable step and touch potentials
•Effects of ground-potential-rise (GPR)
•Control of excessive ground-potential-rise
•Control of voltage gradients in high-voltage substations
•GPR and transferred voltages
•Effects on telecommunications equipment
•Corrective measures &
•Neutralizing transformers for telephone circuits
•Optical isolation equipment for telephone circuits

Feeder Overcurrent Protection
•Protective Relaying Requirements for Radial Systems
•Elements of Feeder Protection Schemes
•High-set, Low-set and Inverse-timed Elements
•Directional Overcurrent Relays
•Coordination with other Devices and Fuses
•Various Types of Overcurrent Relays
•Electromechanical, Electronic & Digital Relays
•Relay Setting Criteria
•Load limitations
•Testing of Overcurrent Protection Schemes
•Microprocessor-based Feeder Overcurrent Protection Relays - Features,
Applications, and Testing

Coordination Of Electrical Protection Systems
•Fuse to Fuse
•Circuit Breaker to Fuse
•Fuse to Circuit Breaker
•Computer Software Packages for Protection Coordination Studies
•Auto-reclosing of Circuit Breakers
•Back-up Protection
•Limitation of Fault Current
•Selective Zones of Protection
1000 - 1015 Break

Bus Protection
•Types of Bus Protection Schemes
•Basic Concept of Differential Protection
•Application to Various Bus Configurations
•Application of High Impedance Relays
•Relay Setting Criteria
•Testing of Bus Protection Schemes

Motor Protection, Starting and Control
•Applicable Motor Standards
•Methods of Starting
•Differential Protection, Phase Unbalance, Overcurrent
•Ground Fault Protection
•Electrical Code Requirements
•Microprocessor-based Motor Control & Protection Devices

Transformer Protection
Overcurrent and Ground Fault Protection
Application of Differential Protection to Transformers
Gas Relays, Pressure and Gas Accumulation
Restricted Earth Fault Protection
Winding Temperature and Oil Temperature Devices
Testing of Transformer protection Schemes
Modern Microprocessor-based Multi-function Transformer Protection
Relays - Functions Available, Applications, and Testing
Analysis of Transformer Oil for Dissolved Gases

Generator Protection
Differential Protection
Reverse Power, Stator Ground, Out-of-Step, Loss of Field,
Field Ground, Overexcitation, Interturn, etc.
Over-frequency, Underfrequency, Overvoltage, Undervoltage
Negative Phase Sequence, or Phase Unbalance
Voltage Controlled & Voltage Restrained Overcurrent Protection
Generator Short-circuit Current Decrement Curves
Synchronizing Systems, Synchro-check Relays
Comparison of Electro-mechanical & Electronic Relays
Testing of Generator Protection Schemes
Microprocessor-based Multi-function Generator Protection Relays -
Available Functions, Applications, and Testing

Cogeneration & Non-Utility Generation Protection
Protection Requirements for Non-utility Generating Stations
Requirements for the Interconnection NUGS to Utility Power Systems
Typical Protection Schemes for Non-utility Generators
Low-cost Microprocessor-based Multi-function Relays for Small
Breaker Failure Protection
Testing of Utility Tie Protection Schemes

Transmission Line Protection
Interconnected Systems With Two-way flow of Fault Current
Distance or Impedance Protection Schemes
Phase Comparison Protection Schemes
Line Differential Protection Schemes
Communication Channel Requirements Between Terminals
Coordination and Transfer-tripping Between Terminals
Modern Microprocessor-based Line Protection Relays - Available
Relays, Features, Applications and Testing

Capacitor Protection
Application of Static Capacitors on Power Systems
Description of Protection Schemes Used
Testing of Capacitor Protection Schemes
Microprocessor-based Capacitor Protection and Controls Relays

مكان الانعقاد :
الاردن للفترة ما بين 6-10\6\2010

كلفة الاشتراك :
د3000 دولار شاملة الحقيبة التدريبة و الشهادات

للتسجيل :
د.محمد ابو محمود 00962795164831