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الموضوع: ساااعدوني بحل هالأسئله ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

  1. #1
    الصورة الرمزية البوسعيدية
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    هام ساااعدوني بحل هالأسئله ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    مررررررررحبا ممكن تساعدوني بحل هالاسئله



    discuss the evolution of human resource management and identify the factors that have impacted on the development of HRM from industrial revolution to the present day

    describe the key function of human resource management


    مكن تساعدوني بحلهم او تدلوني على لينكات او مواقع ممكن الاقي بيها الحل المناسب لانه هالاسئله داشه بالبحث وعندي وقت 4 ايام بس وياريت تساعدوني بليززز وترشدوني ساااعدوني بحل هالأسئله ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

  2. #2
    الصورة الرمزية darkbeams
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    رد: ساااعدوني بحل هالأسئله ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    The Human Resource Profession
    By the end of the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution had changed the nature of work—businesses were no longer small organizations that could be managed by a single owner with a few trusted supervisors. As a result, many support functions were delegated to individuals who began to specialize in specific areas. One of these functions became known as industrial relations or personnel and evolved into what we know today as human resources. As businesses continued to become even larger entities, standards began to develop as practitioners met and shared information about the ways they did their jobs. The need for more formal training standards in various aspects of this new function became apparent, and colleges began to develop courses of study in the field. By the middle of the twentieth century, the personnel function was part of almost every business and numerous individuals worked in the field. A small group of these individuals got together in 1948 and determined that personnel was developing into a profession and was in need of a national organization to define it, represent practitioners, and promote its interests in the larger business community. Thus, the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA) was born.

    For the first 16 years of its existence, ASPA was a strictly volunteer organization. By 1964, membership had grown from the small group of charter members in 1948 to over 3,100 members—enough to support a small staff to serve the members. With membership growing, the discussion quite naturally turned to the topic of defining the practice of personnel as a profession. While there are similarities in the characteristics of established professions, such as a code of ethics, a specific and unique body of knowledge, and an education specific to the profession, there are aspects to most professions that set them apart from each other, and personnel was no different. To solicit the contribution of practitioners in this process, ASPA cosponsored a conference with Cornell University’s School of Industrial Relations to determine how best to define the characteristics that made personnel a profession. This conference spawned a year of consideration and debate among ASPA members.
    According to the HRCI website, the culmination of this process was an agreement on five characteristics that were needed to set personnel apart as a profession. The original characteristics were only slightly different than the following characteristics currently listed by HRCI:
    1. The HR profession must be defined by a common body of knowledge which must be the subject of courses of study at educational institutions.
    2. There must be a code of ethics for the HR profession.
    3. HR as a profession must be the focus of ongoing research and development to move it forward in keeping with changing business needs.
    4. There must be a certification program for HR professionals.
    5. There must be a national professional association that represents the views of practitioners in the larger business community and in the legislative process.
    Once ASPA had a clear definition of what was required for the practice of personnel to be considered a profession, the members knew what needed to be done to make this a reality: develop a body of knowledge and a certification program to evaluate the competence of practitioners.

    Development of the Human Resource Body of Knowledge
    With their goal clearly set, ASPA members went about the process of developing a body of knowledge for the profession. ASPA created a task force to study and report on the issues involved and recommended a course of action. The ASPA Accreditation Institute (AAI) was formed in 1975 with a mandate to define a national body of knowledge for the profession and develop a program to measure the knowledge of its practitioners.
    As a first step in the process, AAI created six functional areas for the BOK:
     Employment, Placement, and Personnel Planning
     Training and Development
     Compensation and Benefits
     Health, Safety, and Security
     Employee and Labor Relations
     Personnel Research (later replaced by Management Practices)
    Over time, as personnel evolved into human resources, ASPA changed its name to the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) to reflect changes in the profession. At that point, AAI became the Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) for the same reason. These associations exist today to represent and certify the profession.
    HRCI ensures the continued relevance of the BOK to actual practice with periodic codification studies. The first of these occurred in 1979; subsequent studies were conducted in 1988, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2005. These reviews enlisted the participation of thousands of human resource experts in ongoing assessments of what a human resource generalist needs to know to be fully competent.
    As with all previous codification studies, HRCI began the most current review in January 2005 with the question, “What should a human resource practitioner know and be able to apply to be considered a competent HR generalist?” HRCI commissioned the Professional Examination Service (PES) to conduct a practice analysis study to obtain information from a variety of sources on the existing state of human resource practices as well as trends predicted for future needs of the profession. Under the guidance of PES, additional information was collected through the use of critical incident interviews and focus groups. Finally, approximately 6,000 certified professionals were surveyed to obtain their views on the current and future needs of the human resource profession.
    The most recent practice analysis study culminated in a major revision to the BOK announced in 2006. The resulting six functional areas constitute the current human resource body of knowledge:
     Strategic Management
     Workforce Planning and Employment
     Human Resource Development
     Total Rewards
     Employee and Labor Relations
     Risk Management
    Clearly, the nomenclature has changed over the past 30 years, yet the basic functional areas of HR have remained fairly stable. Significant changes have occurred, however, within the six functional areas, ensuring the relevance of human resource practice to the changing needs of business in the twenty-first century. A major change occurred with the 2001 practice analysis to ensure that HR professionals understand, and are conversant in, the language of business when “Strategic Management” replaced “Management Practices” as a functional area. This change reflects the increasing need for practitioners to not only fully understand the traditional operational and administrative requirements of human resources, but to also have a broad understanding of other functional areas in business organizations. The 2005 practice analysis resulted in two more changes to the BOK: “Total Rewards” replaces “Compensation and Benefits” and “Risk Management” replaces “Occupational Health, Safety, and Security.”
    Initially, the certification process was a series of exams, one for each level of certification in each of the six functional areas that was identified by the AAI task force. A few years later, HRCI added a generalist exam. The intent of the process in this early stage was to serve the needs of both specialists and generalists. Because there were two levels of certification for each functional area, the process was quite cumbersome and not a little confusing. Eventually the popularity of the generalist exam led to elimination of the specialist certifications, which left just two: Professional in Human Resources (PHR) and Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR). These are the certification levels in existence today.
    As the practice of human resources continues to evolve to meet the needs of international business operations, more emphasis is being placed on the area of global human resources. In response, HRCI developed a new certification, the Global Professional in Human Resources (GPHR). The first GPHR exam was administered in spring 2004. As of March 2006, 396 practitioners have been certified in global practices.


    While the body of knowledge is the same for both exam levels (PHR and SPHR), the functional areas in each test are weighted differently to distinguish the different experience requirements of candidates for each level. To understand how this works, let’s take a look at what each functional area covers.
    Strategic Management Looks at the “big picture” of the organization and requires an understanding of overall business operations, basic knowledge of other functional areas in the organization, and the ability to interact and work effectively with those functions. Strategic Management ensures that traditional HR activities contribute to and support organization goals through the HR planning process, incorporating change initiatives when needed to move the organization forward and providing tools to measure HR effectiveness.
    Workforce Planning and Employment Covers activities related to planning for and managing entry into and exit from the organization to meet changing business needs.
    Human Resource Development Utilizes training, development, change, and performance management programs to ensure that individuals with the required knowledge, skills, and abilities are available when needed to accomplish organization goals.
    Total Rewards Concerns the development, implementation, and maintenance of compensation and benefit systems to support organization goals.
    Employee and Labor Relations Addresses the employment relationship in both union and nonunion environments.
    Risk Management Covers programs that reduce or eliminate organizational risks from health, safety, and security issues.

    Source:PHR/SPHR: Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide, Second Edition
    by Anne M. Bogardus Sybex © 2007 (530 pages)

    ISBN:9780470050682
    Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana

  3. #3
    الصورة الرمزية darkbeams
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    رد: ساااعدوني بحل هالأسئله ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    I would also recommend for you SHRM Online - Society for Human Resource Management
    it's for $ about 100 nnually, but worth it

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