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الموضوع: مصطلحات الموارد البشرية HR Glossary

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    مصطلحات الموارد البشرية HR Glossary

    Ability test
    An assessment instrument used to measure an individuals abilities, mental or physical skills level (i.e. problem solving, manual dexterity, etc.).


    Absolute ratings
    A rating method where the rater assigns a specific value on a fixed scale to the behavior or performance of an individual instead of assigning ratings based on comparisons between other individuals.


    Abstract reasoning
    The process of perceiving issues and reaching conclusions through the use of symbols or generalisations rather than concrete factual information.


    Accreditation
    A process of external quality review and certification by a recognised body that evaluates individuals, colleges, universities and educational programs to assure they are performing the functions that they claim to be performing in a competent manner.


    Achievement test
    A standardised testing instrument used to measure how much an individual has learned or what skills he or she has attained as a result of education, training or past experience.


    Adverse action
    Any act by an employer that results in an individual or group of individuals being deprived of equal employment opportunities.


    Adverse impact
    A substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion or other employment decision that works to the disadvantage of a race, sex or ethnic group.


    Alternation ranking
    A rating method used in job evaluation and performance evaluation whereby the rater is asked to select the best and worst employees from a listing of all employees and then rank them accordingly.


    Attrition
    A term used to describe voluntary and involuntary terminations, deaths, and employee retirements that result in a reduction to the employer's physical workforce.


    Autocratic leadership
    Leader determines policy of the organisation, instructs members what to do/make, subjective in approach, aloof and impersonal.


    Applicant Tracking System (ATS)
    An applicant tracking system (ATS) is an employee recruitment software application that can be used to post job openings on a corporate website or job board. It can be useful in screening resumes, and requesting interviews by e-mail. It is estimated that roughly 50 per cent of all mid-sized companies and almost all large corporations use some type of applicant tracking system.


    Assessment Testing
    Testing used to assist employers in pre-hire evaluations. They ensure that organisations place the right people into the right jobs. These tests can be done via the Internet and they can provide employees with effective training, assist managers in becoming more effective, and promote people into appropriate positions.


    Absent or Absence (Scheduled Time Off)
    An absence is the scheduled time off from work that occurs when an employee is not present at work during a normally scheduled work period.





    Balanced Scorecard
    A management and measurement system which enables organisations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. The goal of the balanced scorecard is to tie business performance to organisational strategy by measuring results in four areas: financial performance, customer knowledge, internal business processes, and learning and growth.


    Behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS)
    An appraisal that requires raters list important dimensions of a particular job and collect information regarding the critical behaviours that distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance. These critical behaviours are then categorised and appointed a numerical value which is used as the basis for rating performance.


    Behavioural based interview
    An interview technique which focuses on a candidate’s past experiences, behaviours, knowledge, skills and abilities by asking the candidate to provide specific examples of when they have demonstrated certain behaviours or skills as a means of predicting future behaviour and performance.


    Benchmarking
    A technique which uses quantitative or qualitative data to make comparisons between different organisations or different sections of the organisations.


    Branding
    The process of identifying and differentiating an organisation’s products, processes or services from another organisation by giving it a name, phrase or other mark.


    Background Screening
    Testing to ensure employers are hiring qualified and honest employees. The screening involves criminal background checks as well as validating important information including Social Security numbers, past addresses, age or year of birth, corporate affiliations, bankruptcies, liens, and judgments. If an employer outsources pre-employment screening, the federal Fair Credit Reporting Act requires that there must be a consent and disclosure form separate from an employment application.


    Benefits Administration
    Software that enables HR professionals (or, brokers, agencies, TPAs or anyone else responsible for managing a company’s employee benefits) to track employee participation in benefits programs including healthcare, insurance and pension plans. Benefits administration software automates and streamlines these tasks.


    Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
    The managing of an organisation’s business applications by a technology vendor.


    Business Casual Dress Code
    The company's objective, in establishing a business casual dress code, is to enable employees to project a professional, business-like image while experiencing the advantages of more casual and relaxed clothing. Business casual dress is the standard for this dress code which is described in detail in the Business Casual Dress Code policy.


    Business plan
    A document that provides relevant information about a company by outlining items such as the companys business description, market or industry, management, competitors, future prospects and growth potential, etc.




    Career center
    An office set up within an organization to be used for the purpose of providing outplacement counseling and job placement services to displaced workers.


    Career counseling
    Guiding individuals through the career planning and career decision-making process by helping them to make informed decisions regarding educational and occupational choices, as well as providing resources needed to further developing job search and placement skills.


    Career development
    The process by which individuals establish their current and future career objectives and assess their existing skills, knowledge or experience levels and implement an appropriate course of action to attain their desired career objectives.


    Career mobility
    The propensity to make several career changes during an individuals lifetime instead of committing to a long-term career within a specific occupational field.


    Career path
    The progression of jobs in an organisations specific occupational fields ranked from lowest to highest in the hierarchal structure.


    Career planning
    The process of establishing career objectives and determining appropriate educational and developmental programs to further develop the skills required to achieve short- or long-term career objectives.


    Career plateau
    Occurs when an employee has reached the highest position level he or she can possibly obtain within an organisation and has no future prospect of being promoted due to a lack of skills, corporate restructuring or other factors.


    Case study
    A case study uses real scenarios that focus on a specific issue(s). It looks deeply at a specific issue, drawing conclusions only about that issue and only in that specific context.


    Casual employment
    The practice of hiring employees on an as-needed basis, either as a replacement for permanent full-time employees who are out on short- and long-term absences or to meet employers additional staffing needs during peak business periods.


    Change Management
    The systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment.


    Coaching
    A training method in which a more experienced or skilled individual provides an employee with advice and guidance intended to help him or her develop skills, improve performance and enhance the quality of his or her career.


    Competency-based pay
    A compensation system that recognises employees for the depth, breadth and types of skills they obtain and apply in their work. Also known as skill-based and knowledge-based pay.


    Competitive advantage
    ‘People are the source of competitive advantage’. Other systems in an organisation can be copied but not the people in the organisation.


    Confidentiality agreement
    An agreement restricting an employee from disclosing confidential or proprietary information.


    Contingent workers
    Employees who may be: casual labour, part-timers, freelancers, subcontractors, independent professionals and consultants.

    Core competencies
    The skills, knowledge and abilities which employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions which are essential to business operations.


    Corporate mission
    The aims and objectives of an organisation.

    Cyclical unemployment
    A form of unemployment – rises in times of economic recession and falls in times of prosperity. Now shows signs of being able to withstand increased prosperity.

    Compensation
    Pay structures within an organisation. It can be linked to employee appraisal. Compensation is effectively managed if performance is measured adequately.

    Competency Modeling
    A set of descriptions that identify the skills, knowledge, and behaviours needed to effectively perform in an organisation. Competency models assist in clarifying job and work expectations, maximising productivity, and aligning behaviour with organisational strategy.

    Consultants
    An outside individual who supplies professional advice or services to companies for a fee. Large HR consulting firms include Aon, Mercer, Hewitt and Watson Wyatt. Large HR consulting firms typically work with companies who have more than 1,500 employees.

    Cost-Benefit Analysis
    The ability to measure the costs associated with a specific program, project, or benefit. The cost is then compared to the total benefit or value derived.

    Cost Per Hire
    The costs linked to recruiting talent. These costs can include advertising, agency fees, relocation costs, and training costs.




    Daily work records
    A daily log of job tasks being performed by individual employees over a certain period of time. Used often as a form of job analysis.


    Department
    Departments are the entities organisations form to organise people, reporting relationships, and work in a way that best supports the accomplishment of the organisation's goals. Departments are usually organized by functions such as human resources, marketing, administration, and sales. But, a department can be organised in any way that makes sense for the customer.


    Defined Contribution
    A pension plan that clearly defines the amount of contributions, which is usually a percentage of an employee’s salary. The benefits payable at retirement depend on several factors including future investment return and annuity rate at retirement.


    Distance Learning
    The process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site to another location by varying technology such as video or audio-conferencing, computers, web-based applications or other multimedia communications.


    Disability
    The inability to perform all or part of one's occupational duties because of an accident or illness. This can be due to a sickness, injury or mental condition and does not necessarily have to have been caused by the job itself.


    Disability Income Insurance
    Health insurance that is paid to a policyholder who experiences a loss of income due to an injury or an illness. Disability insurance plans pay a portion of the salary of a disabled worker until his/her retirement age.


    Disaster recovery plan
    A set of guidelines and procedures to be used by an organisation for the recovery of data lost due to severe forces of nature, such as earthquakes, fires, tornadoes, floods or hurricanes.


    Discharge
    The termination of an employee based on previous disciplinary proceedings or for violating a major work rule or policy.


    Disciplinary action
    The means of reprimanding employees who fail to abide by the organisations performance standards, policies or rules.


    Disciplinary layoff
    A disciplinary measure in which employees are suspended without pay for a specified period of time due to violations of a company work rule or policy.


    Disclosure
    The process of disclosing information to employees or the general public regarding any business practices or processes that contain the propensity to be hazardous to the environment or the health and safety of individuals.


    Discretionary bonus
    A form of variable pay where an employer provides additional cash compensation to an employee for reasons that are not pursuant to any prior contract, agreement or promise that would lead the employee to expect the payments regularly.


    Discrimination
    Any policy or action taken related to recruiting, hiring, promotion, pay or training practices that result in an unfair disadvantage to either an individual or group of individuals who are considered part of a protected class.


    Distance learning
    The process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site to another location by using technology, such as video or audio conferencing, computers, Web-based applications or other multimedia communications.


    Downsizing
    Downsizing means to reduce the number of employees in an organisation. Downsizing or lay-offs reduce the size of a work force. Used sparingly, and with planning, downsizing can be an organisational lifesaver, but when layoffs are used repeatedly without a thoughtful strategy, downsizing can destroy an organisation's effectiveness.

    Drug-free Workplace
    In a drug-free workplace, the employer has taken steps and initiated policies to ensure that employees are not taking or using alcohol or drugs, selling drugs, or affected by the after effects of indulging in alcohol or drugs outside of the workplace. The goal of a drug-free workplace program is to encourage an employee with a substance abuse problem to seek treatment, recover, and return to work.

    Due diligence
    A critical component of mergers and acquisitions, it is the process by investigation and evaluation and is conducted to examine the details of a particular investment or purchase by obtaining sufficient and accurate information or documents which may influence the outcome of the transaction.



    Early retirement plan
    A benefit plan offered by an organization providing incentives geared toward encouraging employees who are approaching retirement age to voluntarily retire prior to their normal retirement age.


    E-Learning
    E-learning is a method of education via the Internet or other computer related resources. It presents just-in-time information in a flexible learning plan. E-learning can be combined with face-to-face courses for a blended learning approach.


    Emotional Intelligence
    Describes the mental ability which an individual possesses enabling him/her to be sensitive and understanding to the emotions of others as well as being able to manage their own emotions and impulses.


    Employment Branding
    A strategy designed to make an organisation appealing as a good place to work. This targeted marketing effort utilises both print and Internet tactics and attempts to shape the perceptions of potential employees, current employees and the public/investment community.


    Employee Involvement
    Employee involvement is creating an environment in which people have an impact on decisions and actions that affect their jobs. Employee involvement is not the goal nor is it a tool, as practiced in many organisations. Rather, employee involvement is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are most enabled to contribute. Find out more about employee involvement.


    Employee Relations
    A broad term used to refer to the general management and planning of activities related to developing, maintaining, and improving employee relationships by communicating with employees, processing grievances/disputes, etc.


    Employee Retention
    Organisational policies and practices designed to meet the diverse needs of employees and create an environment that encourages employees to remain employed.


    Employee self-service
    A trend in human resource management that allows employees to handle many job-related tasks normally conducted by HR (such as benefits enrollment, updating personal information and accessing company information) through the use of a company's intranet, specialized kiosks or other Web-based applications.


    Equity Theory
    Based on the notion that people are motivated by a desire for fairness, that is, to be treated fairly and will compare their own efforts and the rewards of others in the organisation with a view to judging the fairness of their treatment.


    E-Recruitment
    Web-based software that handles the various processes included in recruiting and on-boarding job candidates. These may include workforce planning, requisitioning, candidate acquisition, applicant tracking and reporting (regulatory or company analytics).


    Exit Interview
    An exit interview is an interview conducted by an employer of a departing employee. It is generally conducted by a relatively neutral party, such as a human resources staff member, so that the employee will be more inclined to be candid, as opposed to worrying about burning bridges. Should not be carried out by employee’s immediate superior. Used for possible changes.


    Executive Coaching
    Executive coaching is a professional relationship between a coach and an executive, or an Executive Team. The goal is to assist executives with positive leadership development. It can be provided in one-on-one sessions or via the Internet.


    Executive Search
    An agency or organisation used by employers to assist them with the selection and placement of candidates for senior-level managerial or professional positions.


    Exempt Employee
    An exempt employee is an employee who, because of his/her positional duties and responsibilities and level of decision making authority is exempt from the overtime provisions of the Fair Labour Standards Act (FLSA).


    Extrinsic motivator
    Organisationally controlled incentives, such as pay, benefits, incentives, achievement awards, etc., used to reinforce motivation and increase performance.


    Extrinsic reward
    Work-related rewards that have a measurable monetary value, unlike intrinsic rewards, such as praise or satisfaction in a job well done.



    Face validity
    Making a decision regarding the appropriateness of a test or other assessment instrument based on appearance rather than objective criteria.


    Facilitator
    A trainer who assists a group in learning or reaching a specific goal by directing and controlling the group process and allowing the group to work collectively to resolve problems and come up with solutions.


    Fact finding
    The process of utilising an impartial third party, not employed by the organisation, to examine all pertinent facts surrounding a complaint.


    Fair representation
    This term means that a trade union, so long as it continues to be entitled to represent employees in a bargaining unit, may not act in a manner that is arbitrary, discriminatory or in bad faith in the representation of any employees in the unit.


    Fast-trackers
    A term used to describe employees who have exhibited strong potential for promotion and are being primed for higher level professional or technical positions within the organisation.


    Feasibility study
    A study designed to discover if a business, product, project or process justify the investment of time, money and other resources.


    Feedback
    Positive or negative information provided to an individual in the form of coaching or counseling regarding his or her performance or behaviour.


    Field interview
    An employment interview conducted away from the employers actual worksite.


    Financial statement
    A report containing financial information derived from an organisational accounting record.


    Fitness for duty
    A document provided by a medical practitioner following a post-offer medical examination containing information used by the employer to determine a candidates ability to perform the functions of a job. Also used to refer to documents or notes from medical providers releasing individuals under their care to resume full or modified duties following a leave of absence due to illness or injury.


    Fixed Term Employment
    An employee and an employer may agree that the employment of the employee will end at the close of a specified date or period or on the occurrence of a specified event or at the conclusion of a specified project.


    Flexible staffing
    The practice of utilising temporary employees, independent contractors or part-time employees to fill vacancies instead of hiring a traditional full-time permanent employee workforce.


    Flextime
    Variable work hours requiring employees to work a standard number of core hours within a specified period of time, allowing employees greater flexibility in their starting and ending times.


    Flexible Work Arrangements
    Schedules that allow employees to structure their work hours around their personal responsibilities. Examples include flexi time, job sharing, telecommuting and a compressed workweek. Home sourcing has become a popular flexible work concept in recent years. In this arrangement, employees work full-time from their homes.


    Forced Ranking
    Forced ranking systems direct managers to evaluate their employees' performance against other employees, rather than the more common (and often grade inflated) measure of evaluating performance against pre-determined standards. The result of such a process is often brutally blunt: The top 20 per cent of performers are amply rewarded, and the bottom 10 per cent are shown the door.

    Fringe benefit
    Employment benefits granted to employees in addition to their current base salary or wages (i.e., cash, merchandise, services, health insurance, pension plans, holidays, paid vacations, etc.).

    Fully insured plan
    A benefit plan where the employer contracts with another organisation to assume financial responsibility for the enrollees medical claims and for all incurred administrative costs.

    Functional team
    A group of employees who are responsible for a particular function within the organisation



    Gag clause
    Refers to the employment contract restrictions used as a means of protecting the organisations trade secrets or proprietary information.


    Gainsharing plan
    A group incentive plan used to enhance productivity by sharing with a group a percentage of the gains the organisation realises from specific group efforts.


    Garnishment
    A court order requiring an employer to withhold a certain percentage from an employees pay in order to settle a debt with a creditor.


    Generalist
    An individual who possesses the capabilities to perform more than one diversified function, rather then specializing in or having responsibility for one specific function.


    Generation X
    The term used to describe individuals born between 1965 and 1980.


    Generation Y
    The term used to describe individuals born between 1985 and the present.


    Global compensation
    Pay practices relating to employees who are working on assignments in international locations. A service premium and additional incentives are often included in the compensation package to offset differences in taxes and cost of living.


    Global relocation
    The process of transferring an individuals residence from the United States to a foreign country for the purpose of completing an international job assignment.


    Globalization
    The term used to describe increasingly mobile organizations that are performing their operations in foreign countries.


    Goal Setting
    The process of setting and assigning a set of specific and attainable goals to be met by an individual, group or organisation.


    Gold-collar employee
    The term used to describe individuals such as scientists, engineers and other highly skilled employees who are in high demand and short supply.


    Good -faith bargaining
    The principles applied to conducting negotiations where two parties meet and confer at reasonable times with open minds and the intention of reaching an agreement.


    Group Dynamics
    The social manner in which people interact with each other within a group.




    HR Audit
    A method by which human resources effectiveness can be assessed. Can be carried out internally or HR audit systems are available.


    Hawthorne Effect
    A term produced as a result of an experiment conducted by Elton Mayo whereby he concluded that expressing concern for employees and treating them in a manner which fulfils their basic human needs and wants will ultimately result in better performance.


    Human Capital
    The collective knowledge, skills and abilities of employees.


    Human Capital Management
    The challenge of recruiting and retaining qualified candidates, and helping new employees fit into an organisation. The goal is to keep employees contributing to the organisations intellectual capital by offering competitive salary, benefits and development opportunities. The major functions of human capital management include Recruitment, Compensation, Benefits and Training.


    Human Resource
    A human resource is a person or employee who staffs and operates a function within your organisation. Human resources are the people that staff and operate an organisation.


    Human Resource Development (HRD)
    Human Resource Development is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organisational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, and organisation development.


    Human Resource Management
    Human Resource Management is the function within an organisation that focuses on recruitment, management, and the direction of the people in the organisation. Human Resources management is also performed by line managers.





    Incentive Pay
    Additional compensation used to motivate and to reward employees for exceeding performance or productivity goals.


    Individual employment agreement
    The legal relationship between an employee and employer. See Part 6 of the Employment Relations Act 2000


    Induction
    The process of introducing a new employee into the organisation.


    Industrial relations
    The study of theories and practices in the workplace relationship.


    Intangible rewards
    Non-monetary re-enforcers such as praise given to an employee in recognition of a job well done, or a particular achievement.


    Interview
    There are screening interviews and hiring or selection interviews. Screening interviews qualify a candidate before he meets with a hiring authority for possible selection. Hiring interviews allow the employer to assess the fit of the candidate. The candidate also interviews the employer for job suitability. Most of these interviews take place in an office setting one-on-one or in a small group.


    ISO 9000
    Developed by the International organisation for Standardisation (ISO), it is a set of standards for quality management systems that is accepted around the world. Organisations that conform to these standards can receive ISO 9000 certification. The standard intended for quality management system assessment and registration is ISO 9001. The standards apply uniformly to organisations of any size or description.




    Job Analysis
    A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis.


    Job Board
    An online location that provides an up-to-date listing of current job vacancies in various industries. Applicants are able to apply for employment through the job board itself. Many job boards have a variety of additional services to help job seekers manage their careers and their ongoing job search processes.


    Job Description
    A written description of a job which includes information regarding the general nature of the work to be performed, specific responsibilities and duties, and the employee characteristics required to perform the job.


    Job evaluation
    Used for compensation planning purposes, it is the process of comparing a job with other jobs in an organisation to determine an appropriate pay rate for the job.


    Job Offer Letter
    A job offer letter is a document that confirms the details of an offer of employment. The job offer letter includes details such as job description, reporting relationship, salary, bonus potential, benefits, and more. The job offer letter generally confirms the terms




    KPI’s
    ‘Knowledge, Skills and Abilities’ - Key Performance Indicators. Tasks that have been agreed between an employee and line manager/HR with an expectation that they will be completed satisfactorily in the time agreed or as an ongoing task.





    Leadership Development
    Formal and informal training and professional development programs designed for all management and executive level employees to assist them in developing the leadership skills and styles required to deal with a variety of situations.





    Managing Human Resources
    Managing human resources refers to the functions that a manager performs relative to the organisation's employees. Managing human resources includes, but is not limited to these functions. Learn more about managing human resources.


    Matrix organisation
    An organisational structure where employees report to more then one manager or supervisor.


    Mentoring
    A one-to-one process between an outside trainer and an employee, whereby the former ‘trains’ the latter. See also coaching.


    Minimum wages
    The lowest level of earnings of employees set by Government.


    Mission Statement
    A statement illustrating who the company is, what the company does, and where the company is headed.


    Motivation
    The reason(s) why a person works at a particular job and for a particular organisation. Subject to various theories relating to the way they do things.


    Motivational theories
    An attempt to explain how people are motivated, in the form of work behaviour and performance.




    Organisational Culture
    A pattern that emerges from the interlocking system of the beliefs, values and behavioural expectations of all the members of an organisation.


    Open Door Policy
    An open door policy means, literally, that every manager's door is open to every employee. The purpose of an open door policy is to encourage open communication, feedback, and discussion about any matter of importance to an employee.


    Orientation
    The introduction of employees to their jobs, co-workers, and the organisation by providing them with information regarding such items as policies, procedures, company history, goals, culture, and work rules. Similar to Induction.


    Outsourcing
    A contractual agreement between an employer and an external third party provider whereby the employer transfers responsibility and management for certain HR, benefit or training related functions or services to the external provider.


    Organisational Development
    A planned organisation-wide effort to improve and increase the organisations effectiveness, productivity, return on investment and overall employee job satisfaction through planned interventions in the organisation's processes.




    Paid Sick Days Policy
    Paid sick days are time off from work that an organisation voluntarily provides employees as a benefit. The number of paid sick days is often accrued by employees based on years of service to the organisation and the level of their position. Other companies, however, keep paid sick days simple - every employee receives the same number of paid sick days.


    Paid Vacation Days Policy
    Paid vacation days are time off work an organisation provides employees as a benefit. The number of paid vacation days is generally accrued by employees based on years of service to the organisation.


    Payroll
    Documentation created and maintained by the employer containing such information as hours worked, salaries, wages, commissions, bonuses, vacation/sick pay, contributions to qualified health and pension plans, net pay and deductions.


    Peer Appraisal
    A performance appraisal strategy whereby an employee is reviewed by his/her peers who have sufficient opportunity to examine the individual’s job performance.


    Performance Appraisal
    A periodic review and evaluation of an individual's job performance.


    Performance Improvement
    Performance Improvement Plan is when you have identified a performance problem and are looking for ways to improve the performance of an employee. The Performance Improvement Plan plays an integral role in correcting performance discrepancies. It is a tool to monitor and measure the deficient work products, processes and/or behaviours of a particular employee in an effort to improve performance or modify behaviour.


    Performance Management
    This is a process of identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of employees in an organisation, in order that organisational objectives are more effectively achieved and understood by employees.


    Performance Planning
    A total approach to managing people and performance. Involving setting performance aims and expectations for the organisation, departments and individual employees.


    Personnel File Access Policy
    All employees, former employees, and representatives of employees may view certain documents from their personnel file with advance notice to Human Resources staff. Documents that relate to the employee's qualifications for hire may be viewed. Documents that may not be reviewed are also described.


    Probationary Arrangements
    Where the parties to an employment agreement agree as part of the agreement that an employee will serve a period of probation or trial after the commencement of the employment. See Section 66 Employment Relations Act 2000


    Promotion
    The advancement of an employee from one position to another position that has a higher salary range maximum is called a promotion.




    Quality management
    The process or system of ensuring that a product or service should do what the user needs or wants and has a right to expect. There are five dimensions to quality, design, conformance, availability, safety and field use.





    Random Testing
    Drug and alcohol tests administered by an employer which selects employees to be tested on a random basis.


    Recognition
    Recognition is providing attention or favourable notice to another person. Recognition can be written, verbal, or monetary. In the workplace, the second purpose for employee recognition is to communicate and reinforce the behaviours and actions you'd like to see the employee do more often.


    Recruitment
    The process of bringing personnel into an organisation who will possess the appropriate education, qualifications, skills and experience for the post offered.


    Recruiter
    Recruiters are employed by a company for the purpose of finding and qualifying new employees for the organisation. Third party recruiters are subcontracted to by a company for the same purpose. Several different types of third party recruiters exist, but the main difference between them lies in how they are compensated, up front or by a company-paid percentage of the hired person's first year pay.


    Redundancy
    The act of dismissing an employee when that employee is surplus to the requirements of the organisation.


    Replacement charts
    A summarisation in visual form the numbers of incumbents in each job or family of jobs, the number of current vacancies per job and the projected future vacancies. See Succession planning.


    Resume
    A written document outlining an individuals work experience, skills, educational background, accomplishments and other related information supporting his or her career goal.


    Retention bonus
    An incentive payment used to entice employees from leaving the organisation. Typically employees are asked to sign an agreement stating they will remain employed for a specific duration or until the completion of a particular task or project in order to be eligible for the bonus.


    Retirement plan
    A written qualified or nonqualified benefit plan, funded by employer and employee contributions, that provides retirement income benefits for employees.


    Retraining
    Training that is provided for a certain job to enable an employee to acquire the necessary skills to work with new processes, procedures or equipment.


    Return on investment (ROI)
    A ratio of the benefit or profit derived from a specific investment compared to the cost of the investment itself.


    Right to manage
    The ‘right’ of management to make decisions and to run an organisation without interference from external or internal forces.


    Risk Management
    The use of insurance and other strategies to minimise an organisations exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.


    Rotational training
    A training method where employees are rotated among a variety of different jobs, departments or company functions for a certain period of time.





    Sabbatical
    A voluntary arrangement whereby an employer allows an employee paid or unpaid leave for a specified duration of time in order for the employee to pursue a course of advanced training, teach or perform a public service. In education, it is a period of time college or university teachers are allowed to stop their usual work in order to study or travel, usually while continuing to be paid (typically every seven years).


    Safe Harbor Regulations
    Guidelines regulated by the Department of Labor, which, when fully complied with, may reduce or limit the liability of a plan fiduciary.


    Safety training
    A teaching tool used to help employees become more safety-conscious in all aspects of safety.


    Salary compression
    Pay differentials too small to be considered equitable. The term may apply to differences between (1) the pay of supervisors and subordinates; (2) the pay of experienced and newly hired incumbents of the same job; and (3) pay-range midpoints in successive job grades.


    Salary grade
    A compensation level expressed as a salary range, which has been established for each position within the organisation.


    Salary range
    A range of pay rates, from minimum to maximum, set for a specific pay grade.


    Salary structure
    A structure of job grades and pay ranges established within an organisation. May be expressed as job grades or job evaluation points.


    Sales compensation
    A compensation system designed for individuals employed in managerial sales or sales representative positions. Individuals are paid on a commission or percentage of sale basis, in accordance with achieving specified sales goals.


    Scalability
    The degree to which a computer application or component can be expanded in size, volume or number of users served and continue to function properly.


    Schedule interview
    An interviewing format in which each candidate is asked for the same exact information.


    Screening
    Usually the first step taken during the interviewing process, involving reviewing prospective candidate applications/resumes, verifying information supplied by the candidate, conducting interviews and examining test results.


    Search firm
    An organisation or individual consultants working on a retainer or fee basis who provide the service of searching and screening potential candidates for prospective employers. Typically search firms are retained for higher-level professional or managerial positions.


    Self-employed
    An individual who has earned income for the current or preceding year from self-employment, or an individual who would have had such income, except for the fact that the relevant business did not incur a profit for the year.


    Semi-skilled Worker
    Semi-skilled workers have to be able to read, write and communicate but are usually not required to have educational or apprenticeship credentials to qualify for jobs. Training time is short, task specific and generally doesnt require much in terms of reasoning skills.


    Seniority
    Status determined by the length of time an employee has worked for a specific employer, department or position within the organisation.

    Sensitivity training
    A form of individual counseling geared toward increasing self-awareness and sensitivity to others. It aims to assist key employees in developing their leadership skills surrounding issues of diversity and harassment prevention.

    Service award
    Part of a formal or informal recognition program that rewards employees based on length of service.

    Severance Pay
    Severance pay is money that an employer might want to provide for an employee who is leaving their employ. Normal circumstances that might warrant severance pay include layoffs, job elimination, and mutual agreement to part ways for whatever reason. Severance pay usually amounts to a week or two of pay for each year of service to the company. In some instances, a severance package might include extended benefits and outplacement assistance.

    Sick leave
    Paid time off granted to employees who are out of work due to an illness or injury.

    Six Sigma
    Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven methodology used to eliminate defects and improve processes and cut costs from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.

    Skill
    Ability to perform a mental or motor activity that contributes to the effective performance of a job task.

    Skill gap
    A deficiency in basic writing, reading, mathematical or oral communication skills.

    Skill-based pay
    A salary differentiation system that bases compensation on an individuals education, experience, knowledge, skills or specialised training.

    Skills training
    Training provided to employees to help them ascertain the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their current jobs; also used as a retraining method when new systems or processes are introduced.

    Slow learner
    A term used to describe individuals with mental disabilities and an IQ of between 75 and 90.

    Soft skills
    Skills required to perform a certain job where the job is defined in terms of expected outcomes, but the process to achieve the outcome varies.

    Spot rewards
    Cash and noncash awards given to employees for ideas submitted or accomplishments benefiting the organisation.

    Staff leasing
    The practice of an employer directly hiring an employee on a temporary basis for an indefinite period of time instead of utilising the services of a temporary staffing agency.

    Staffing
    A method of finding, evaluating, and establishing a working relationship with future employees. They may be current employees or future employees.

    Strategic HRM
    The process of aligning human resources more closely to the strategic and operating objectives of the organisation.
    Strategic Planning
    The process of identifying an organisation's long-term goals and objectives and then determining the best approach for achieving those goals and objectives.

    Strategic staffing
    The practice of hiring smaller core numbers of permanent employees and utilizing temporary employees to fill more highly specialized positions within the organisation.

    Stress management
    The design and implementation of workplace programs and services intended to combat employee stress and improve overall employee morale, effectiveness and productivity.

    Strike
    Occurs when employees deliberately refuse to perform their jobs and/or form picket lines outside the employers premisses to prevent or discourage others from working in their place or conducting business with the employer.

    Structured interview
    A structured interview asks the same questions of each candidate, so that valid comparisons of the quality of responses can be obtained. The questions generally take four job-related forms: situational, observational, personal and behavioral.

    Subordinate appraisal
    An appraisal system whereby managerial employees are evaluated by their subordinates.

    Suspension
    A form of disciplinary action resulting in an employee being sent home without pay for a specified period of time.

    Succession Planning
    The process of identifying long-range needs and cultivating a supply of internal talent to meet those future needs. Used to anticipate the future needs of the organisation and assist in finding, assessing and developing the human capital necessary to the strategy of the organisation.

    SWOT Analysis
    A SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to collect and evaluate information on an organisations current Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a specific project or business venture.



    Talent Management
    Talent Management, often referred to as Human Capital Management, is the process of recruiting, managing, assessing, developing and maintaining an organisation’s most important resource—it’s people.


    Tangible rewards
    Rewards that can be physically touched or held (i.e., a gift certificate, gifts in the form of merchandise or a savings bond.)


    Task analysis
    Involves defining standards and conditions of a particular task and identifying the distinguishing factors between tasks.


    Task competencies
    The specific activities and tasks that make up a particular job.


    Team building
    A training program designed to assist a group of people to work together as a team while they are learning.


    Teamwork
    Described as the practice of individuals working together in order to bring a variety of talents and experiences to achieve a common goal.


    Temporary employee
    An individual who works on either short- or long-term assignments with an employer without being treated as a permanent employee and lacking the benefits of permanent employees. Normally utilised by employers to meet seasonal or other demands that they do not have the internal resources to meet.


    Termination
    Separation from employment due to a voluntary resignation, layoff, retirement or dismissal.


    Termination Date
    Normally the last date actually worked by an employee; however, for employers with accrued leave programs, paid leave programs, benefit continuation programs or severance pay programs which go beyond the last day worked, the termination date would be the date at which accruals, paid leave, benefit continuation or severance continuation ceases.


    Termination-at-will
    A rule allowing an employee or employer to terminate the employment relationship at any time for any or no reason at all.


    Time management
    The discipline of utilising time efficiently and well in order to achieve professional, personal or organisational objectives.


    Total compensation
    The complete pay package awarded employees on an annual basis, including all forms of money, benefits, services and in-kind payments.


    Total quality management
    A structured system that satisfies internal and external customers and suppliers by integrating the business environment, continuous improvement and breakthroughs with development, improvement and maintenance cycles.


    Total Remuneration
    The complete pay package awarded to employees on an annual basis, including all forms of money, benefits, services, and in-kind payments.


    Training and development
    A process dealing primarily with transferring or obtaining knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to carry out a specific activity or task.


    Training Needs Analysis
    A method of analysing how employee skill deficits can be addressed through current or future training and professional development programs, as well as determining the types of training/development programs required, and how to prioritise training/development.


    Transfer
    Moving an employee from one position, shift or department to another within the organisation.


    Transitional employment
    Provides alternative work arrangements, such as temporary light or modified duty, for employees who have been absent from the workplace as a result of illness or injury and who have been released by their medical provider to return to work.


    Trend analysis
    The process of forecasting an organisations staffing needs by analysing past employment patterns in order to identify trends that may be expected to continue.


    Turnover
    Describes changes in the work force resulting from voluntary or involuntary resignations




    Unfairly discriminatory
    An action or policy resulting in members of protected groups becoming disadvantaged in relation to the employers selection, hiring, promotion, pay and training opportunities, when said person(s) are as equally qualified and have the same potential to be successful.


    Unemployment Compensation
    Unemployment compensation was created by the Social Security Act of 1935 to protect workers who became unemployed through no fault of their own. The federal government provides incentives and guidelines to the states about unemployment compensation, but each state is responsible for its own guidelines and program for unemployment compensation.


    Unemployment rate
    The number of individuals unemployed as a percentage of the labor force.


    Unretirement
    The practice of hiring retired former employees whose skills or qualifications are in need.


    Unskilled worker
    Someone who is not required to use reasoning in their work: Examples: packager, assembler, laborer, hand, apprentice


    Upward mobility
    The process of preparing minorities for promotion into higher-level jobs, such as managerial positions.




    Value-added work
    Work that increases the value of a service or product to the employers customers.


    Variable Pay
    Variable pay is used generally to recognise and reward employee contribution toward company productivity, profitability, team work, safety, quality, or some other metric deemed important. Variable pay changes depending upon the circumstances.


    Virtual HR
    The use of various types of technology to provide employees with self-serve options. Voice response systems, employee kiosks are common methods.


    Virtual mentoring
    A form of mentoring whereby the mentor and mentored communicate from a distance, utilising either e-mail or other forms of electronic conferencing.


    Virtual office/workplace
    The work site of employees such as sales reps or other types of employees who work off company premises and communicate with their respective workplaces via telephone or computer.


    Voluntary Benefits
    Benefits that are paid for by the employee through payroll deductions. The employer pays for administration. Examples of these benefits include life insurance, dental, vision, disability income, auto insurance, long-term care coverage, medical supplement plans and homeowners insurance.


    V-time
    An alternative work schedule that allows employees to voluntarily agree to reduce their work time and pay.




    Wage and salary administration
    Procedures used for planning and administering organisation-wide compensation programs for all levels of employees.


    Wage and salary survey
    A benchmark report consisting of market pay data for a variety of jobs conducted either on a local or nationwide basis. Used to evaluate an organisation's own current pay structures and as a future compensation planning tool.


    Wage Curve
    Depicts pay rates currently being paid for each job within a pay grade in relation with the rankings awarded to each job during the job evaluation process.


    Wellness program
    Programs, such as on-site or subsidised fitness centers, health screenings, smoking cessation, weight reduction/management, health awareness and education, that target keeping employees healthy, thereby lowering employers costs associated with absenteeism, lost productivity and increased health insurance claims.


    White collar employees
    Employees who are paid on a salaried basis and whose jobs do not require the performance of work of a manual nature. Such individuals are normally employed in the capacity of managers, supervisors, salespeople, clerical or technical workers and meet the criteria of the FLSA white collar exemption test.


    Work sampling
    The measurement of how employees spend their time and the number of work units being produced by employees over a specific period of time. This is accomplished by randomly observing employees while they are performing their jobs and then using mathematical formulas to determine the sample size.


    Work/life balance
    Having a measure of control over when, where and how individuals work, leading to their being able to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Work/life balance is achieved when an individuals right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society.


    Work Coaching
    Coaching (work coaching) is a method used by managers and supervisors to provide positive or constructive feedback to employees to help them continue excellent performance or identify ways to improve performance.


    Workers' Compensation
    Workers' compensation laws make certain that an employee who is injured as a result of an accident on the job or who contracts a disease as a result of performing his/her job, will receive compensation and medical benefits. Every state requires that employers purchase workers' compensation insurance to ensure that employees, who are affected by illness or injury, and their dependants, are protected against significant hardships in case of injury, illness, or death.





    Zero-based budgeting
    A budgeting system that starts with no authorised funds as a starting point. In a zero-based budget, each activity or program to be funded must be justified every time a new budget is prepared and resources are allocated accordingly.


  2. 2 أعضاء قالوا شكراً لـ kamal hamza على المشاركة المفيدة:

    amqs (5/6/2011), محمد أحمد إسماعيل (10/6/2011)

  3. #2
    الصورة الرمزية محمد أحمد إسماعيل
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    رد: مصطلحات الموارد البشرية HR Glossary

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