Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) are a special type of work behaviour that are defined as individual behaviours that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. These behaviours are rather a matter of personal choice, such that their omissions are not generally understood as punishable. OCBs are thought to have an important impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of work teams and organizations, therefore contributing to the overall productivity of the organization.
The research about the employee’s behaviour in organization was getting more intention form more social science scholars. The researcher was focus to study this topic in Organisational psychology around previous century. Their are observe and studied about the influence of employee’s behaviour in job performance or workers productivity. The progresses in human relations management theory have an impact on this situation. In discussing the issue on behavioural impact with employee’s relations in organization, always the researchers used the job satisfaction factors to tell that is more influence to the workers behaviour. Most of the scholars in sociology says that the workers are enjoy and happy in organization achieve and get more job satisfaction and productivity than some works not happy in workplace.
In summary, the background literature indicates that there are two main motivations of OCB:
(1) Employee attitudes in the workplace.
(2) Individual employee personalities.
The number of studies exploring this topic has significantly increased. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the dimensionality of the OCB construct (LePine et al., 2002). Podsakoff et al. (2000) compiled a detailed classification of such behaviours, which were grouped into seven categories:
  • helping behaviour;– volunteering, altruism;
  • sportsmanship – positive attitudes, sacrifice of weekends, helpful assistants;
  • organisational loyalty/) Individual initiative – help retention, carefully managing budgets, sharing best practice, efforts to present positive image of company to researchers;
  • compliance / Complacence – aligning with corporate strategy, fitting into HR/diversity structures, performance measures;
  • . civic virtue – tackling discrimination, monitoring progress, keeping up with
technology, sharing; and
  • Self-development/ Personal development. – Wide range of career development events.
  • Individual initiative;
  • Organizational commitment;
Many researchers want to find some variables in organizational citizenship behaviour among the workers in contacts of working. In the starting period of 1983, the researchers just related the level of job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behaviour, but now they try to relate to the organizational commitment, perception on justice, perception on equalization and social values. Another than that, have some researchers try to observe and find some differences in the interest with organizational citizenship behaviour among the workers.
They are wont to see the differences in demographic aspects like age, sex, level of educations, job level and time period of service. They want to relate these aspects with organizational citizenship behaviour concepts to see the important of these things. Concepts like self-rating and other-rating and also crass-sectional and longitudinal studies were used to identify the organizational citizenship behaviour. The latest trend is the researchers start to observe and identify effects of value influence in the task forces in organization.